A device that takes input, processes it and gives output.
Types of input/output
There are three types of input or output
In analog form computer deals with continuous values like a speedometer.
In digital form, computers deal with 0,1 form.
Hybrid means it could be analog or digital form.
The computer system is a set of the interrelated component. It is consist of two basic component
- Hardware component
- Software component
Hardware components are tangible and physical parts.
whereas software components are nontangible. These are sets of programs and instructions given to the computer. The instructions are written in programing language.
Generation of computer
- Vacuum tube from 1946 to 1959
- Transistor from 1959 to 1965
- Integrated circuit from 1965 to 1971
- Microprocessor from 1971 to 1980
Computer programming languages
Computer operations are based on executing instruction. Computer system operations are specified through these instructions. To perform a specific task several instructions are written. So computer programs are defined as a set of instructions given to a computer to perform a task.
There are two types of computer programming languages
- Low-level languages
Low-level languages are close to machine languages. Machine languages and assembly languages are two types of low-level languages.
Computer work on the base of binary code arrangement of 0s and 1s. This is the fundamental language of the computer. As computers work only with 0s and 1s, the instructions have to be given to the computer in binary code. Therefore instructions are written by the combination of 0s and 1s.
It is very difficult to understand and learn. Every computer has its machine language.
Its language was developed to make programming tasks easier. The instruction through this language is given by English words which are called mnemonics. Mnemonic is spelled as Ne-Monic.
Assembly language programs are translated into machine language. The application program that translates assembly language into machine language is called an assembler.
Writing programs is much easier through assembly language rather than machine language. For writing system software and firmware, assembly language is used.
- High-level languages
High-level languages are programming languages that are close to human languages. Instruction is like human language.
BASIC, FORTRAN, COBOL, PASCAL, C, C++, etc are high-level languages. These languages are easy to understand as compare to low-level languages. These languages are used for writing the program that is very helpful for users.
A high-level language program may be used for writing a program that manages company employees’ records and their performance details.
This language has its own rules for the writing program. This set of rules are called the syntax of the language. A program written in this level of language is called a source program or source code. This source code does not directly run on the computer. So before execution, it is converted into machine language.
The application program that converts source program into machine program is known as a compiler.
Characteristic of high-level languages
There are the following characteristic of high-level languages
- These are machine-independent
- These can be implemented on a variety of machine
- A high-level language is a program-oriented language
- It is easy to understand as compared to low-level language
- Well defined syntax and standard Easy to debug